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Old 04-21-2017, 06:56 AM   #1
Tmag
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Default Texas Independence - San Jacinto

SAN JACINTO, birthplace of Texas liberty! ... San Jacinto, one of the world’s decisive battles! . . . San Jacinto, where, with cries of "Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!" Sam Houston and his ragged band of 910 pioneers routed Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, President and Dictator of Mexico and self-styled "Napoleon of the West," with his proud army, and changed the map of North America!

Here is a story that has thrilled Texans for more than a century ... a story of desperate valor and high adventure; of grim hardship, tragedy and romance ... the story of the epochal battle that established the independent Lone Star Republic, on April 21, 1836, and indelibly inscribed the names of Texas patriots on history's scroll of American immortals.

It will take you longer to read this story than it took Sam Houston and the Texians to defeat Santa Anna and his army.

THE MEXICAN PURSUIT
Flushed with their Alamo victory, the Mexican forces were following the colonists. Houston's scouts reported that General Ramirez y Sesma and General Adrian Woll were on the west side of the Colorado with approximately 725 troops and General Eugenio Tolso with 600. By this time recruits and reinforcements had increased Houston's army to a strength to defeat estimated as high as 1200. The chilling news of Fannin's defeat, reaching the

Texas forces on March 25, impelled many to leave the ranks, to remove their families beyond the Sabine. Those remaining clamored for action, but Houston decided to continue his retreat. On the 26th, keeping his own counsel, he marched his army five miles. On the 27th the column reached the timbers of the Brazos River bottoms, and on the 28th arrived at San Felipe de Austin, on the west bank of the Brazos. On the 29th the army marched six miles up the river in a driving rain, and camped on Mill Creek. On the 30th after a fatiguing tramp of nine miles, the army reached a place across the river from "Bernardo," on one of the plantations of the wealthy Jared E. Groce, and there camped and drilled for nearly a fortnight.

When the ad interim Texas government at Washington-on-the-Brazos learned of the Mexicans' approach, in mid-March, it fled to Harrisburg. President David G. Burnet sent the commander-in-chief a caustic note, prodding him to stop his retreat and fight. Secretary of War Thomas J. Rusk arrived at the camp April 4 at Burnet's direction, to urge Houston to a more aggressive course. Houston having shown no disposition to fight, Santa Anna decided to take possession of the coast and seaports, as a step in his plan to round up the revolutionists. Crossing the Brazos at Fort Bend (now called Richmond) on the 11th, the Mexican general proceeded on April 14 on the road to Harrisburg, taking with him about 700 men and one twelve-pounder cannon. Urrea was at Matagorda with 1200 men: Gaona was somewhere between Bastrop and San Felipe, with 725; Sesma, at Fort Bend, with about 1,000, and Vicente Filisola between San Felipe and Fort Bend, with nearly 1800 men.

Santa Anna arrived at Harrisburg on the 15th. There he learned that the Burnet government had gone down Buffalo Bayou to New Washington (now Morgan's Point), about 18 miles southeast. Burning Harrisburg, Santa Anna sped after them. On the 19th when he arrived at New Washington he learned that the new Texas government had fled to Galveston. Santa Anna then set out for Anahuac via Lynchburg.

THE ROAD TO SAN JACINTO
Meanwhile, on April 11th, the Texans at Groce's received two cannons, known to history as the "Twin Sisters," a gift from citizens of Cincinnati, Ohio. Thus fortified, General Houston, after a consultation with Rusk, decided to move on to the east side of the Brazos. The river being very high, the steamboat "Yellow Stone" and a yawl were used to ferry the army, horses, cattle and baggage across. The movement began on the 12th and was completed at 1 p.m. on the 13th.

On the 13th Houston ordered Major Wyly Martin, Captain Mosely Baker, and other commanders of detachments assigned to delaying actions, to rejoin the main army at the house of Charles Donoho, about three miles from Groce's. At Donoho's the road from San Felipe to eastern Texas crossed the road south from Groce's.

On April 16 the army marched twelve miles to the home of Samuel McCurley on Spring Creek, in present Harris county. The creeks formed the boundary line between Harris and Montgomery counties. Three miles beyond McCurley's was the home of Abram Roberts, at a settlement known as "New Kentucky." At Roberts' two wagon trails crossed, one leading to Harrisburg and the other Robbins' Ferry on the Trinity and on to the Sabine.

Many of his officers and men, as well as government officials, believed that Houston's strategy was to lead the pursuing Mexicans to the Sabine River, the eastern border of Texas. There, it was known, were camped United States troops under General Pendelton Gaines, with whose help the Texans might turn on their foes and destroy them. However, on April 17, when Roberts' place was reached, Houston took the Harrisburg road instead of the one toward the Louisiana line, much to the gratification of his men. They spent the night of the 17th near the home of Matthew Burnett on Cypress Creek, twenty miles from McCurley's. On April 18 the army marched twenty miles to White Oak Bayou in the Heights District of the present city of Houston, and only about eight miles from Harrisburg, now a part of Houston.

From two prisoners, captured by Erasmus "Deaf" Smith, the famous Texas spy, Houston first learned that the Mexicans had burned Harrisburg and had gone down the west side of the bayou and of the San Jacinto River, and that Santa Anna in person was in command. In his march downstream Santa Anna had been forced to cross the bridge over Vince's Bayou, a tributary of Buffalo Bayou, then out of its banks. He would have to cross the same bridge to return. Viewing this strategic situation on the morning of the 19th, Houston told his troops it looked as if they would soon get action. And he admonished them to remember the massacres at San Antonio and at Goliad. "Remember the Alamo!" The soldiers took up the cry. "Remember Goliad!"

In a letter to Henry Raguet he said:
"This morning we are in preparation to meet Santa Anna. It is the only chance for saving Texas."

In an address "To the People of Texas" he wrote:
"We view ourselves on the eve of battle. We are nerved for the contest, and must conquer or perish…We must act now or abandon all hope."

Houston's force crossed Buffalo Bayou to the west side, near the home of Isaac Batterson, two and a half miles below Harrisburg, on the evening of the 19th. Some 248 men, mostly sick and non-effective, were left with the baggage at the camp opposite Harrisburg. The march was continued until midnight.

ON THE EVE OF BATTLE
At dawn April 20 the Texans resumed their trek down the bayou, to intercept the Mexicans. At Lynch's ferry, near the juncture of Buffalo Bayou and San Jacinto River, they captured a boat laden with supplies for Santa Anna. This probably was some of the plunder of Harrisburg or New Washington. Ascertaining that none of the enemy forces had crossed, the Texans drew back about a mile on the Harrisburg road, and encamped in a skirt of timber protected by a rising ground.

That afternoon, Colonel Sidney Sherman with a small detachment of cavalry engaged the enemy infantry, almost bringing on a general action. In the clash two Texans were wounded---one of them, Olwyn J. Trask, mortally---and several horses were killed. In this preliminary skirmish Mirabeau B. Lamar, a private from Georgia (later President of the Republic of Texas), so distinguished himself that on the next day he was placed in command of the cavalry.

Santa Anna's blue-uniformed army made camp under the high ground overlooking a marsh, about three-fourths of a mile from the Texas camp. They threw up breastworks of trunks, baggage, pack-saddles and other equipment. Both sides prepared for the expected conflict. The Texans awoke to find Thursday, April 21, a clear fine day. Refreshed by a breakfast of bread made with flour from the captured supplies and meat from beeves slaughtered the day before, they were eager to attack the enemy. They could see Santa Anna's flags floating over the enemy camp, and heard the Mexican bugle calls on the crisp morning air.

It was discovered at about nine o'clock that General Martin Perfecto de Cos(Santa Anna's brother in law) had crossed Vince's bridge, about eight miles behind the Texans' camp, with some 540 picked troops, swelling the enemy forces to about 1265. General Houston ordered "Deaf" Smith and a detail to destroy the bridge and prevent further enemy reinforcements. This also would prevent the retreat of either the Texans or the Mexicans toward Harrisburg. In dry weather Vince's Bayou was about fifty feet wide and ten feet deep, but the excessive April rains had made it several times wider and deeper. [With "Deaf" Smith in the detail that destroyed the bridge were Young P. Alsbury, John Coker, John Garner, Moses Lapham, Edwin R. Rainwater and Dimer W. Reaves.]

Shortly before noon, General Houston held a council of war with Colonels Edward Burleson and Sidney Sherman, Lieutenant Colonels Henry Millard, Alexander Somervell and Joseph L. Bennett, and Major Lysander Wells. Two of the officers suggested attacking the enemy in his position, while the others favored awaiting Santa Anna's attack. Houston withheld his own views, but later, after having formed his plan of battle, submitted it to Secretary of War Rusk, who approved it.

THE BATTLE OF SAN JACINTO
General Houston disposed his forces in battle order at about 3:30 in the afternoon. Over on the Mexican side all was quiet; many of the foemen were enjoying their customary siesta. The Texans' movements were screened by the trees and the rising ground, and evidently Santa Anna had no lookouts posted. Big, shaggy and commanding in his mud-stained unmilitary garb, the chieftain rode his horse up and down the line. "Now hold your fire, men," he warned in his deep voice, "until you get the order!"

At the command, "Advance," the patriots, 910 strong, moved quickly out of the woods and over the rise, deploying. Bearded and ragged from forty days in the field, they were a fierce-looking band. But their long rifles were clean and well oiled. Only one company, Captain William Wood's "Kentucky Rifles," originally recruited by Sidney Sherman, wore uniforms. The battle line was formed with Edward Burleson's regiment in the center; Sherman's on the left wing; the artillery, under George W. Hockley, on Burleson's right; the infantry, under Henry Millard, on the right of the artillery; and the cavalry, led by Lamar, on the extreme right.

The Battlefield of San Jacinto


Silently and tensely the Texas battle line swept across the prairie and swale that was No Man's land, the men bending low. A soldier's fife piped up with "Will You Come to the Bower,"' a popular tune of the day. That was the only music of the battle. As the, troops advanced, "Deaf" Smith galloped up and told Houston, "Vince's bridge has been cut down." The General announced it to the men. Now both armies were cut off from retreat in all directions but one, by a roughly circular moat formed by Vince's and Buffalo Bayous to the west and north, San Jacinto River to the north and cast, and by the marshes and the bay to the east and southeast.

At close range, the two little cannon, drawn by rawhide thongs, were wheeled into position and belched their charges of iron slugs into the enemy barricade. Then the whole line, led by Sherman's men, sprang forward on the run, yelling, "Remember the Alamo!" "Remember Goliad!" All together they opened fire, blazing away practically point-blank at the surprised and panic-stricken Mexicans. They stormed over the breastworks, seized the enemy's artillery, and joined in hand-to-hand combat, emptying their pistols, swinging their guns as clubs, slashing right and left with their knives. Mexicans fell by the scores under the impact of the savage assault.



General Manuel Fernandez Castrillian, a brave Mexican, tried to rally the swarthy Latins, but he was killed and his men became crazed with fright. Many threw down their guns and ran; many wailed, "Me no Alamo!" "Me no Goliad!" But their pleas won no mercy. The enraged revolutionists reloaded and chased after the stampeding enemy, shooting them, stabbing them, clubbing them to death. From the moment of the first collision the battle was a slaughter, frightful to behold. The fugitives ran in wild terror over the prairie and into the boggy marshes, but the avengers of the Alamo and Goliad followed and slew them, or drove them into the waters to drown. Men and horses, dead and dying, in the morass in the rear and right of the Mexican camp, formed a bridge for the pursuing Texans. Blood reddened the water. General Houston tried to check the execution but the fury of his men was beyond restraint.

Some of the Mexican cavalry tried to escape over Vince's bridge, only to find that the bridge was gone. In desperation, some of the flying horsemen spurred their mounts down the steep bank; some dismounted and plunged into the swollen stream. The Texans came up and poured a deadly fire into the welter of Mexicans struggling with the flood. Escape was virtually impossible. General Houston rode slowly from the field of victory, his ankle shattered by a rifle ball. At the foot of the oak where he had slept the previous night be fainted and slid from his horse into the arms of Major Hockley, his chief of staff.

As the crowning stroke of a glorious day, General Rusk presented to him as a prisoner the Mexican general Don Juan Almonte, who had surrendered formally with about 400 men. The casualties, according to Houston's official report, numbered 630 Mexicans killed, 208 wounded, and 730 taken prisoner. As against this heavy score, only nine Texans were killed or mortally wounded, and thirty wounded less seriously. Most of their injuries came from the first scattered Mexican volley when the attackers stormed their barricade. The Texans captured a large supply of muskets, pistols, sabers, mules, horses, provisions, clothing, tents and paraphernalia, and $12,000 in silver.

THE CAPTURE OF SANTA ANNA
Santa Anna had disappeared during the battle, and next day General Houston ordered a thorough search of the surrounding territory for him. In the afternoon Sergeant J. A. Sylvester spotted a Mexican slipping through the woods toward Vince's Bayou. Sylvester and his comrades caught the fugitive trying to hide in the high grass. He wore a common soldier's apparel round jacket, blue cotton pantaloons, skin cap and soldier's shoes. [With Sylvester in the capture of Santa Anna were Joel W. Robison, Joseph D. Vermillion, Alfred H. Miles and David Cole.] They took the captive to camp, and on the way, Mexican prisoners recognized him and cried, "El Presidente!" Thus his identity was betrayed; it was indeed the dictator from below the Rio Grande. He was brought to General Houston, who lay under the headquarters oak, nursing his wounded foot. The Mexican President pompously announced, "I am General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, and a prisoner of war at your disposition." General Houston, suffering with pain, received him coldly. He sent for young Moses Austin Bryan and Lorenzo de Zavala Jr. to act as interpreters. Santa Anna cringed with fright as the excited Texas soldiers pressed around him, fearing mob violence. He pleaded for the treatment due a prisoner of war. "You can afford to be generous," he whined; "you have captured the Napoleon of the 'West." "What claim have you to mercy?" Houston retorted, "when you showed none at the Alamo or at Goliad?" They talked for nearly two hours, using Bryan, de Zavala and Almonte as interpreters. In the end Santa Anna agreed to write an order commanding all Mexican troops to evacuate Texas. Later, treaties were signed at Velasco, looking to the adjustment of all differences and the recognition of Texas independence. Thus ended the revolution of 1836, with an eighteen-minute battle which established Texas as a free republic and opened the way for the United States to extend its boundaries to the Rio Grande on the southwest and to the Pacific on the west. Few military engagements in history have been more decisive or of more far-reaching ultimate influence than the battle of San Jacinto.



Map showing then and now!
http://www.sanjacinto-museum.org/The..._Battleground/


GOD BLESS TEXAS!!!
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Old 04-21-2017, 08:11 AM   #2
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God Bless Texas!!!! Remember the Alamo and Goliad!!!
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Old 04-21-2017, 08:32 AM   #3
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Old 04-21-2017, 08:38 AM   #4
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Old 04-21-2017, 08:44 AM   #5
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good stuff
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Old 04-21-2017, 09:37 AM   #6
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Nice article! God Bless Texas!
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Old 04-21-2017, 09:41 AM   #7
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Brave group of men fighting for what was right. God Bless Texas.
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Old 04-21-2017, 09:58 AM   #8
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Great write up!
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Old 04-21-2017, 10:04 AM   #9
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Love it! Thanks for the yearly reminder!
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Old 04-21-2017, 10:08 AM   #10
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Thanks Tim, I just spent 2 hours on the museum website. Great reading.
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Old 04-21-2017, 10:45 AM   #11
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Texas: My home!
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Old 04-21-2017, 12:38 PM   #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Leonhogboy View Post
Thanks Tim, I just spent 2 hours on the museum website. Great reading.
Make a trip out there when you have some time and visit the battle markers they have from the ship channel on the west to the east end of the marsh behind the monument. The stories at each marker are amazing and gave me a sense of what was going on and where. Looking at the spot where Houston rode in on the cannons was a time stopper.
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Old 04-21-2017, 01:32 PM   #13
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My direct descendants fought at the battle of San Jacinto. It was actually my great, great, etc. grandfather and two of his sons. Our family name is listed on the monument, more specifically my grandfather's who at least one male from each generation since has been named after.
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Old 04-21-2017, 01:36 PM   #14
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awesome write and thank you for posting.

I am a Son of the Republic and this time of the year is very special.
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Old 04-21-2017, 01:39 PM   #15
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I love these ... Too cool
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Old 04-21-2017, 03:17 PM   #16
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That was great Thanks!
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Old 04-21-2017, 03:42 PM   #17
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Thanks Tmag for helping keep our great history alive. Always look forward to your write ups!
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Old 04-21-2017, 03:45 PM   #18
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San Jacinto Day Battle Reenactment and Festival

Saturday, April 22, 2017
La Porte, TX

Booming cannons, cracking musket fire, thundering hooves and battle cries will resound across the San Jacinto Battleground as hundreds of history reenactors recreate the events leading up to Texas winning its independence at the decisive Battle of San Jacinto.

The festival begins with a ceremony commemorating the battle’s anniversary held on the northern steps of the San Jacinto Monument.

Times
10 AM: Celebration of San Jacinto
10 AM – 2 PM: Demonstrations of army and civilian life
3 PM: Re-enactment of Battle and Surrender

http://www.texasarmy.org/events

http://www.sanjacinto-museum.org/Abo...l_Reenactment/
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Old 04-21-2017, 03:49 PM   #19
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God bless Texas! As a 3rd grade kid reading this in the History book (in Ohio mind you) it was always so vivid and stuck with me. When I finally got to visit the monument and show my wife it all, it was like those memories came full circle.
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Old 04-21-2017, 04:37 PM   #20
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Thank you for the great write up, love reading it every year!
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Old 04-21-2017, 06:06 PM   #21
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Texas!
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Old 04-21-2017, 06:49 PM   #22
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Thank you Tmag. Your Texas history lessons are a great read.
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Old 04-21-2017, 11:17 PM   #23
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Thanks so much Tmag for your love of our Beloved Texas History!! Side note, My father found a cannon ball in the bank of a bayou close to where the final battle occurred. He was a young man on a weekend camp out! It is one of our most cherished artifacts!
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Old 04-23-2017, 06:47 AM   #24
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Lee230 View Post
Thanks so much Tmag for your love of our Beloved Texas History!! Side note, My father found a cannon ball in the bank of a bayou close to where the final battle occurred. He was a young man on a weekend camp out! It is one of our most cherished artifacts!
I have heard several have found old musket and cannon balls out there years ago, newer laws have put a stop to searching with metal detectors and digging holes. I'm sure there are several still there.
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Old 04-23-2017, 07:18 AM   #25
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There should be a citizen s test for all these foreigners coming to Texas.
They need to understand our history and how we feel about our Great State of Texas.
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Old 04-23-2017, 08:10 AM   #26
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ty................
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